Agriculture being the first supply of livelihood for almost all of the inhabitants is a vital sector of the Indian financial system. The contribution to GDP by agriculture is estimated to be round 17% and it additionally gives employment to over 60% of the inhabitants.
India is the world’s largest producer of milk, pulses, and jute, and ranks because the second-largest producer of rice, wheat, sugarcane, groundnut, greens, fruits, and cotton. It can be a significant producer of spices, fish, poultry, livestock, and plantation crops.
The Indian meals trade has huge development potential. Its annual contribution to the world meals commerce grows because of its huge potential for worth addition, notably within the meals processing trade. India ranks 6th on the planet grocery market, with retail accounting for 70% of complete gross sales. The meals processing trade contributes 32% of the full meals market within the nation. It is one in every of India’s most essential industries.
Types of Agriculture in India
In India, farming techniques vary from subsistence farming to natural farming to industrial or industrial farming. Farming in India varies considerably because of the local weather variations throughout the nation.
1. Subsistence Farming: Subsistence farming is practiced by the overwhelming majority of farmers in India. This entails rising meals for one’s personal consumption. In different phrases, all the crop is consumed by the farmers and their households, and there’s no surplus to promote within the native market.
The complete household works on the farm and the vast majority of the agricultural work is finished manually. There is an entire lack of recent farm gear, similar to tractors, in addition to farm inputs similar to chemical fertilizers.
2. Shifting Agriculture: Shifting Agriculture is a sort of farming wherein farmers domesticate the land for 2 or three seasons. Then they abandon the land permitting greens to develop freely. Farmers then relocate to a brand new location. When the soil reveals indicators of exhaustion or, extra generally, when the sector is overrun by weeds, that’s when the interval of cultivation ends. The slash-and-burn technique of shifting agriculture leaves solely trunks and huge bushes within the area after standing vegetation has been lower down and burned, with the ashes enriching the soil.
3. Intensive Agriculture: A farming system that employs a considerable amount of labor and capital in relation to land space. This usually entails the usage of fertilizers, and pesticides on a big scale that improve the yield, in addition to the acquisition and use of equipment to help in planting, chemical utility, and choosing. It is often known as industrial agriculture.
4. Terrace Agriculture: It is a farming technique wherein “steps” referred to as terraces are created onto the slopes of hills and mountains to domesticate crops. Terrace farming prevents rain from washing away soil vitamins which ends up in the expansion of wholesome crops. This farming technique has enabled crop cultivation in hilly or mountainous areas.
5. Plantation Agriculture: Plantation agriculture is a sort of economic farming wherein rising crops for revenue is the first aim. The approach crops are developed for revenue implies that a considerable amount of land is required to make plantation farming worthwhile.