Pomegranates bloom all yr lengthy in a tropical local weather. There are three separate flowering seasons in subtropical central and western India, nonetheless, yield and high quality should not pretty much as good in all crop harvests. It is important to establish crop flowering and fruiting habits, in addition to which bahar will produce a productive crop when all parts related to that bahar are taken into consideration.
Objectives of crop regulation
The predominant goal of crop regulation is to drive the tree to relaxation and produce prolific blossoms and fruits throughout any one of many two or three flushes. Besides, some goals are as underneath:
To acquire the acceptable crop at a desired season
To regulate a uniform and good high quality of the fruits
To maximize the manufacturing in addition to revenue to grower.
To cut back value of cultivation as a result of uninterrupted steady blossom would produce mild crops over the entire yr and require a excessive value for the monitoring and advertising and marketing.
Ambebahar (spring season flowering), mrigbahar (June-July flowering), and hastabahar (August-September flowering) are the three predominant flowering and fruiting seasons of the pomegranate (October- November flowering). Plants might proceed to bear blooms and small crops irregularly at totally different instances of the yr underneath such situations, which might not be commercially viable. Only one harvest annually is fascinating for business manufacturing. Bahar choice is influenced by location in addition to sure present manufacturing constraints equivalent to irrigation water availability, fruit high quality, market costs, and illness and pest infestations. Water provide is a significant problem for pomegranate growers in arid and semi-arid areas all through the summer season season. They always keep away from choosing ambebahar crops and restrict harvesting to the winter months. Some farmers desire Hastabahar as a result of it has much less water.
Principles of flower regulation
Crop regulation’s predominant premise is to change the pomegranate plant’s pure flowering in a desired season to maximise fruit yield, high quality, and profitability. It is helpful for essentially the most environment friendly and long-term use of sources, in addition to excessive manufacturing of high-quality fruits. Environmental and genetic components affect the onset of flowering and the regulation of flowering. Pomegranates bloom intermittently within the arid and semi-arid areas from February to October. To keep away from this, pomegranate crop regulation is finished by a set of mechanisms at sure durations. All commercially grown sorts within the nation are extraordinarily vulnerable to illnesses and pests, significantly Bacterial Leaf Blight, Scorching, Nematode, Termite, and Mite, amongst others. Therefore, availability of irrigation water, local weather, pest and illness infestation, and market demand are the key points for flower regulation in pomegranates. Indian varieties principally produce flowers all year long.
Methods of crop regulation in pomegranate
Many components affect flowering, together with irrigation withholding (lack of moisture), defoliants, plant development hormones, nutrient standing, and cover administration (coaching and pruning), amongst others. Irrigation is stopped one to 2 months earlier than the required bahar within the pomegranate is obtained. After that, minor pruning after which foliar spraying of ethrels defoliant are used to eliminate the leaves. The topsoil across the tree was dug as much as a depth of 30 cm, equal to the leaf cover. Manure and fertilisers are unfold on the soil, which is subsequently levelled. Following the administration of the mandatory dose of manure and fertilisers, mild watering is carried out. The higher flowering, good floral intercourse ratio, larger fruit setting and finally larger high quality yield of fruits could also be taken in yr at a desired season by these remedies. There should be good development and improvement of pomegranate vegetation as much as first two years. Bahar therapy should be began from third yr onwards for taking higher high quality fruit manufacturing. Bahar therapy is finished within the following methods in pomegranate.
Flowering because of the stress of water shortage
The predominant precept of withholding of irrigation is to offer relaxation to the plant. It ends in a rise within the variety of flowers and the buildup of huge quantities of meals to extend development within the coming season. In mild sandy soils, irrigation is withheld for one month, whereas in loamy soils, it’s withheld for one and a half months. When pomegranate vegetation have the specified leaf fall, it’s the optimum situation for crop regulation (50 to 70 % ). Plants generate osmatin, proline, and arginine protein in response to water stress. Proteogenic amino acids, equivalent to prolines, accumulate as a helpful solute in vegetation underneath stress and non-stress situations, offering a excessive capability for stress tolerance. These amino acids additionally support within the stimulation of flowering in vegetation underneath water stress situations. As a consequence, vegetation generate extra flowers, have a greater intercourse ratio, and produce extra fruits.
Use of chemical compounds for flowering
In current instances, the foliar spray of ethrel (1-2 ml per litre) is extensively practiced for crop regulation in pomegranate crop. Ehtrel hormone stimulates the enzymes i.e. cellulase and polygalacteronase for cell smelting. This situation is taken into account good for reaching extra flowering, good intercourse ratio and excessive yield.
Flower regulation by cultural practices
Higher flowering % and high quality fruit manufacturing in pomegranates are finest achieved by cover administration methods equivalent to coaching, trimming, and fertiliser management (carbon nitrogen ratio). Pomegranate timber could be skilled to be multi-stemmed or single-stemmed. To keep away from stem borer harm, 3 to 4 stems are normally stored, whereas the remaining shoots are minimize, giving the tree a bushy look. Pomegranate vegetation are sometimes skilled utilizing an open centre approach of their early years. After withholding watering for 15 to twenty days earlier than beginning a brand new bahar, mild pruning is finished. To stop fungal infestation, 10% Bordeaux paste is utilized to trimmed plant parts.
Mrigbahar is regulated in dry areas to make sure high-quality crop manufacturing. For regulating of crop in dry areas, withholding of irrigation is finished in April- May. Subsequently mild pruning and spraying the mixer of 1000-2000 ppm ethrel and 0.5 per cent diammonium phosphate is adopted. Flowering takes place in June – July. This provides good high quality fruits in November- December. For getting good high quality yield 60 to 80 fruits needs to be retained on single plant.
Insect-pests and illnesses administration
Crop regulation is an efficient technique of controlling insect pests and illnesses. Depending on the dose of defoliant used for crop administration, leaf falls vary from 50 to 100%. Insect pests and illnesses needs to be eradicated to some half by gathering and burning fallen leaves. As a consequence, it aids within the prevention of insect pests and illnesses, in addition to the discount of insecticide use.
Lokesh Kumar, Dr. R.L. Bhardwaj
Department of Horticulture, Agriculture University, Jodhpur