Soybean is an annual plant that grows for just one season and might attain heights of 0.2–1.5 m. Soybean, also called Soyabean or soya, is a plant native to Northeast China.








Bacterial Blight





Soybean is probably the most broadly produced and consumed oilseed on the earth. Soybean vegetation are sometimes erect shrubs with woody stems and alternately organized leaves. The leaves have three particular person leaflets which might be oval or lance-like in form and might develop to be 3–10 cm lengthy. The soybean plant has small white or purple flowers and curved seed pods which might be 3–15 cm lengthy and might include 1–5 seeds.












The seeds might be yellow, inexperienced, brown, black, or a mottled mixture of those colours. Soybean is an annual plant that grows for just one season and might attain heights of 0.2–1.5 m. Soybean, also called Soyabean or soya, is a plant native to Northeast China.

Some Common Soybean Plant Pests

 

Pests

 

Identification

 

Treatment

 

Armyworms

 

A newly hatched fall armyworm caterpillar has a light-weight physique and a black head. The colour of the physique darkens with age. A distinguished white inverted Y-shape on the pinnacle distinguishes fall armyworm caterpillars. In addition, 4 darkish spots on the higher facet of the caterpillar’s eighth belly phase are normally seen.

 

Avoid utilizing dangerous pesticides or practices that will carelessly destroy useful bugs, your first line of pure protection.

Release trichogramma wasps to parasitize any newly laid eggs.

Use fast-acting natural pesticides if pest ranges turn out to be insupportable.

 

Cucumber Beetle

 

Common cucumber beetles might be noticed or striped. Spotted varieties have twelve black spots on their greenish-yellow wing coverings. Striped sorts have black heads and three black stripes that run down their yellow-orange wing covers. Both sorts develop to be just one/4 inch lengthy.

 

Monitor vegetation and rising areas, together with the rising medium, for any indicators of pests.

Use baited traps early within the season the place cucumber beetles are recognized to be an issue.

Manually take away any seen egg clusters or adults and get rid of them.












 

Mexican Bean Beetle

Mexican bean beetles are small, measuring about 14 inches lengthy, with sixteen black spots on their tan yellow our bodies. As they age, their our bodies flip from brilliant yellow to orange-yellow.

Check the underside of leaves for eggs and pupal stage larvae, particularly from early spring to June.

·Select and destroy larvae and beetles by hand.

If an insecticide is required, contact your native cooperative extension workplace for a listing of accredited pesticides and pesticides.

 

Soybean aphid

Pear-shaped our bodies (1/16-inch lengthy).

At the top of the stomach, there are black cornicles (also called “tailpipes”).

Mouthparts for piercing and sucking are tucked below the pinnacle.

On soybean, each winged and wingless morphs are doable.

Foliar pesticides at labelled charges can be utilized to manage soybean aphids.

 

Aphid resistant soybean varieties might be efficient.

 

Soybean Diseases: Symptoms & Treatments

Fungal Disease

1. Rhizoctonia stem rot (Rhizoctonia solani)

Symptoms:

  • Damping-off (pre- or post-emergence dying) of seedlings brought on by reddish-brown lesions girdling the stem

  • Lesions or cankers on the stems of older vegetation may cause the plant to die in the course of the season.












Treatment:

  • Prior to planting, apply an applicable fungicide to the seeds.

  • Soybean varieties with decrease susceptibility must be planted.

  • Only plant in well-draining soils

2. Rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi)

Symptoms:

  • Water-soaked gray or red-brown spots on leaves that flip tan to darkish reddish-brown lesions can also be current on stems, petioles, and pods.

  • Within the lesions, volcano-shaped uredinia (spore-producing constructions) are current; vegetation drop leaves and mature prematurely.

Treatment:

  • Rust-resistant soybean varieties must be planted.

  • Foliar fungicide purposes which might be applicable for the illness can support in illness management.

Bacterial Diseases

Bacterial Blight

Symptoms:

  • Late-season signs embody the formation of angular lesions that vary in measurement from small yellow to brown leaf spots.

  • Spots first seem within the mid to higher cover.

  • Spot centres dry out and switch darkish reddish-brown to black.

  • The tissue surrounding the spots seems moist and develops a yellowish-green halo.

  • Lesions which have dried out fall from the leaf.

  • The seeds can turn out to be shrivelled and discoloured.

Treatment:












Anthracnose

Caused by the fungus Colletotrichum truncatum.

Symptoms:

  • Lesions on the stem, pods, and petioles which might be brown to black and irregular in form.

  • The leaves roll and the veins between the main veins are necrotic.

  • Infected pods could also be stuffed with mycelium reasonably than seeds, or the seeds could also be fewer and/or smaller, in addition to brown, mouldy, shrivelled, or regular in look.

Treatment:

  • Crop rotation to non-host crops is really helpful.

  • Inclusion of infested residue.

  • Plant pathogen-free seed and/or deal with seed with a fungicide of selection.

Disease & Pest-Resistant Seed Varieties

Resistant to Bacterial Pustules:

  • Ahilya-3

  • Alankar

  • Ankur

  • Bragg

  • Durga (JS 280)

  • Hara Soy

Resistant to Viral Diseases:












Resistant to Yellow Mosaic:

  • Type 49

  • SL 96, SL 295

  • Shivalik

  • Improved Pelican

  • Hardee

Resistant to Bacterial Blight:

  • Ahilya-1, Ahilya-3

  • JS 79-81

Resistant to Rust:

You might go to the next sources for extra info

 http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/content/soybean-varieties-releasednotified-india

https://www.fontanelle.com/en-us/agronomy-library/identifying-common-soybean-diseases-during-vegetative-growth.html











First printed on: 29 Apr 2022, 04:47 IST




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