Maize





Globally, maize is called ‘Queen of the Cereals’ or ‘Miracle C4 crop’ due to its genetic make-up conserves highest yield potentiality among the many different cereals and gaining reputation as evidenced by its large-scale consumption as meals (61%), feed (17%), fodder for animals and as supply of business uncooked supplies (22%) viz., starch, syrup, dextrose, gelatin, protein, alcoholic drinks, oil, pharmacy, cosmetics, bio-fuel (ethanol), meals sweeteners, and so on.












Maize has a particular adaptability characteristic to domesticate completely different session (Kharif, Rabi and spring) all year long in a single or different places of the nations. The main maize rising states that contribute to maize manufacturing are Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Jammu Kashmir, and others. The main ailments prevalent in numerous agro-climatic zones of India are leaf spot, seed rot and seedling blight, banded leaf and sheath blight, downy mildew, stalk rot, smut and rusts.

Banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB)

Causal organism: Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii

Description

The illness is reported to happen in Jammu Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Assam, Nagaland, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar the illness is prevalent in sizzling humid foothill area of Himalayas and in plain. In Haryana, the illness is happening in average to extreme kind since final couple of years and causes yield losses.

Symptoms:

The illness seems on leaves and sheath on 40-45 days previous plant and in a while unfold to the ear. The attribute lesions seem as concentric bands and rings on decrease leaves and sheath. The affective plant produces massive, gray, tars or brown discolor areas alternating with darkish brown bands. Later on sclerotia are fashioned in these areas. The growing ear is totally broken and dried up pre-maturely with cracking of the husk leaves. Brown rotting of ear additionally develops which exhibits conspicuous gentle brown cottony mould with small, spherical block sclerotia.












Management

  • Stripping of decrease 2-3 leaves together with their sheath appreciable reduces the illness incidence.

  • Use of resistant/tolerant hybrids

  • Application of validamycine, carbendazim (0.2%) and moncren (0.1%) have been discovered efficient in checking the illness.

Maydis leaf blight (MLB)

Causal organism: Bipolaris maydis

Description

This illness happens in main a part of India which incorporates states of Jammu Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The illness is distributed in heat humid temperate to tropical the place the temperature ranges from 20 – 30o C throughout cropping interval.

Symptoms

The illness will be  manifested by the looks of  quite a few lifeless brown or purplish areas surrounded by a reddish brown margin on the leaves and the lesions longitudinally elongated, usually coalescing to kind extra in depth lifeless parts.

Management

  • Sanitation and destruction of crop particles will cut back the preliminary quantity of inoculums.

  • Rotation with non host species.

  • Spraying of crop with mancozeb (0.2%) with the looks of the illness at ten days interval discovered efficient in controlling the illness.

  • Growing resistant hybrids/varieties.












Common rust

Causal organism: Puccinia sorghi

Description

The illness is prevalent in subtropical, temperate and excessive land surroundings. The illness is reported in Jammu Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Meghalya, West Bengal, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Symptoms

Disease look is frequent on the time of teaseling. Common rust is acknowledged by the looks of round to elongate brown powdery pustules scattered over each surfaces of the leaf. Their powdery nature is as a result of plenty of uredospores that break by the dermis of the leaf. As corn matures, black pustules are fashioned on the each surfaces of the leaves due to formation of black teliospores instead of brown uredospores.

Management

  • Grow resistant /tolerant hybrids.

  • Foliar spray with mancozeb @ 0.2 to 0.25 % at ten days interval beginning with the looks of the illness was discovered efficient in checking the illness. 

  • Cultivate early maturing varieties

Bacterial stalk rot

Causal organism: Dickeya zeae

Description

The illness happens in lots of states like Sikkim, West Bengal, Himachal Pardesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Delhi, Uttar Pardesh, Uttarkahand, Bihar, Madhya Pardesh and Andhra Pradesh. The excessive incident of this illness is favoured by excessive temperature (32-35ºC) and excessive relative humidity.

Symptoms

Disease can infect the plant at any node from the soil floor upto complete plant. Primary signs of discolouration attributable to tan to darkish brown, water soaked slimy lesion on the leaf sheath and stalk seem when crops out of the blue falls over and are seen scattered within the subject. During advance stage of an infection, a foul order will be sensed from the macerated tissues and the highest of such crops will be simply faraway from the remainder of plant. Disease crops might stay inexperienced a number of days. 

Management

  • To handle the illness destroys the diseased plant particles.

  • Keep the fields effectively drained and guarantee correct drainage to keep away from water logging.

  • Maintain required plant inhabitants and planting of crop on ridges relatively than flat sowing

  • Application of 150 gm of Captan and 33gm of secure bleaching powder in 100 liters of water and drench the soil close to plant roots when crop is 5-7 weeks previous is efficient in checking the illness.

  • Uproot and destroyed contaminated plant when crop reaches 5-7 weeks.












Fusarium stalk rot

Causal organism: Fusarium verticillioides

Description

The illness happens in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh

Symptoms

Symptom turns into conspicuous when the crop enters senescence part. Infected crops leaves flip to boring inexperienced as a substitute of darkish inexperienced shade and the decrease stalk develop into yellow/ straw color and complete plant is wilted. The inside pith of the decrease nodes get disintegrated and softened which will be simply pressed between thumb and finger. Fungal mycelium can usually be seen at such nodes. The pathogen generally impacts the roots crown areas and decrease internodes.  When cut up open, the stalk exhibits pink-purple discoloration.

Management 

  • Deep ploughing, sanitation and elimination of earlier crop particles.

  • Always maintained really useful plant inhabitants.

  • Balanced soil fertility, keep away from excessive stage of N and low stage of Okay

  • Use crop rotation with non host crop like soybean.

  • Use the resistant or illness tolerant Hybrids

Pythium stalk rot

Causal organism: Pythium aphanidermatum

Description

The illness happens in Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Symptoms

Disease might happen previous to flowering and is normally confined to the primary or second internode above the soil line with the roots and high of the plant changing into contaminated. The outer rind and pith tissues are rotted with solely the vascular bundles stay intact. The cottony progress will be seen on the contaminated portion of the plant.   The diseased space of the stalk turns into brown, water soaked, delicate and the stalk is collapsed.

Management

  • To handle the illness destroys the diseased plant particles.

  • Keep the fields effectively drained to keep away from water logging that helps in zoospore dispersal.

  • Maintain required plant inhabitants.

  • Use resistant varieties/hybrids

  • Application of 150g of captan and 33g of secure bleaching powder in 100 liters of water and drench the soil close to plant roots when crop is 5-7 weeks previous is efficient in checking the illness.

  • Uproot and destroyed contaminated plant when crop reaches 5-7 weeks

Charcoal Rot

Causal Organism:   Macrophomina phaseolina

Description

The illness happens in Jammu Kashmir, West Bengal, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Symptoms

Disease seems one to 2 weeks after the flowering.  This illness is prevalent in comparatively dried maize rising areas. The ailments are normally conformed to first or second internode above soil stage. Disease additionally turns into obvious because the plant strategy maturity. Affected crops dry untimely and the affected internodes develop into disintegrated and present black discoloration. Presence of quite a few, minute black sclerotia on vascular bundles and contained in the rind of the stalks is a distinguished character. Water stress at or after flowering has been discovered to pre dispose the plant to an infection.

Management

  • Deep ploughing, sanitation and elimination of earlier crop particles from soil.

  • Use crop rotation, avoiding water stress at flowering time to cut back illness incidence.

  • Use resistance varieties/hybrids.

  • In affected subject, steadiness soil fertility specifically will increase the potash stage as much as 80 kg/ha.

  • Use of Trichoderma formulation after mixing with FYM @ 10 g/kg and incubate for 10 days coated with moist gunny begs helps in lowering the illness. This combination needs to be utilized in furrows earlier than sowing.

Curvularia leaf spot

Causal Organism: Curvularia lunata

Description

The illness is prevalent in sizzling and humid areas.

Symptoms

Initial signs of the illness embody small necrotic spots with a lightweight coloured halo. Lesions are about 0.5 cm in diameter when absolutely developed. Severe an infection could cause yellow of complete leaf.












Management

  • Deep ploughing, sanitation and elimination of earlier crop particles from soil.

  • Use crop rotation, avoiding water stress at flowering time to cut back illness incidence.

  • Use resistance varieties/hybrids.

  • Seed Treatment with 20 g Trichoderma chalk formulation + Mancozeb 63% or Thiram 40 F.S. @ 6 g/kg seed.

  • Foliar Spray: – It needs to be completed at 35 and 55 DAS utilizing Carbendazim 12%+ Mancozeb 62% or Zineb 75% @ 2 g/lit of answer.

Authors

Parvesh Kumar1 and Poonam Kumari

Department of Plant Pathology,

Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India 125004







Source

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