Given that rice cultivation consumes 45 p.c of the nation’s complete irrigation water, it’s a necessity to spice up farming strategies.

Rice is broadly assumed to be an aquatic plant that thrives in standing water. Rice is just not an aquatic plant; it might probably survive in water however not thrive in low oxygen environments (hypoxia). Under fixed flooding, rice crops spend plenty of power creating air pockets (aerenchyma tissue) of their roots. During the flowering section, over 70% of rice root suggestions deteriorate.

Farmers additionally use a mean of 15,000 liters of water to supply one kilogram of paddy, however water technologists on the Indian Agricultural Research Institute in New Delhi recommend that if ample water administration methods are used, simply 600 liters are required to supply an identical quantity of rice. Given that rice cultivation consumes 45 p.c of the nation’s complete irrigation water, it’s a necessity to spice up farming strategies.

There are a number of interventions launched for a sustainable strategy to paddy cultivations. They are listed as follows:

Seed Replacement Rate (SRR)

The seed alternative price (SRR) is a measure of how a lot of the cropped space is roofed with high-quality seed. As a consequence, SRR has a direct impression on growing productiveness and growing farmer earnings and is among the strategies for doubling farmer earnings.

Seed Treatment

Seed remedy will be executed in three alternative ways: seed dressing, seed coating, and seed pelleting. Seed dressing is the most typical kind of seed remedy. In this technique, the seed must be dressed with both a dry formulation or a moist one which will get handled with a slurry or liquid.

Dressings must be used on each the farm and within the business. Seeds must be unfold on a polyethylene sheet, and the required quantity of chemical substances must be sprinkled on prime of the seeds and mechanically blended by the farmers.

Line Sowing

Line sowing is a greater choice than broadcasting for paddy cultivation. Seeds are sowed in rows on the primary area. Between traces, the spacing is 22.5 to 30 cm, whereas inside a line, the spacing is 8 to 10 cm. The seed must be planted at the very least 3–4 cm deep.

System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

The system of rice intensification (SRI) entails cultivating rice with as a lot natural manure as doable, starting with younger seedlings planted singly at a wider spacing in a sq. sample; occasional irrigation that retains the soil moist however not flooded; and common inter cultivation with a weeder that actively oxygenates the soil.

SRI is not a pre-packaged, pre-programmed expertise answer. It’s extra of a set of rules, a system for sustainably managing and saving assets by altering how land, seeds, water, vitamins, and human labor are used to spice up productiveness from a small however well-tended variety of seeds.

SRI, as Father de Laulanié identified, is a group of various useful practices. Paddy fields will not be flooded beneath SRI however are stored damp through the vegetative interval. After that, just one inch of water is stored. This technique makes use of about half the quantity of water that’s usually utilized in standard farming. Currently, over 1,000,000 farmers all through the world are experimenting with this technique.

The paddy cultivation utilizing the SRI technique makes use of much less water, wants much less labor, and produces higher yields. As a consequence, it’s extremely useful for small and marginal farmers. In the Eighties, Madagascar was the primary nation to develop SRI. China, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and India are all placing it to the take a look at as of now. During the 2003 Kharif season, SRI was examined in all 22 districts of Andhra Pradesh with constructive outcomes.

In SRI paddy cultivation, solely 2 kg of seeds per acre are required. As a consequence, there are fewer crops per unit space (25 × 25 cm), in comparison with 20 kg of seeds per acre in standard chemical-intensive paddy cultivation. (1 acre equals about 0.4 hectares.)

Comparison between SRI and the traditional technique of rice cultivation:



Conventional Method


25 × 25 cm

15 × 10 cm

No. of crops per sq. m



No. crops per acre



Seed requirement per acre

2 kg

20 kg

Important steps in SRI:

Here are some vital steps to bear in mind when working towards SRI for paddy cultivation:

Seed Rate and Nursery Area: The seed price must be 7–8 kg/ha for single seedling per hill.

Season: Dry season with assured irrigation is preferable. Crop institution is likely to be troublesome in areas the place there may be plenty of rain equivalent to monsoon season in Tamil Nadu.

Varieties: According to Cornell University, the SRI approach is a administration strategy that doesn’t require the event of recent varieties. Plant efficiency is improved when the SRI strategies are used to develop practically any selection. This is as a result of crops cultivated in a greater atmosphere can present their genetic potential extra successfully. When planted with the SRI strategies, high-yielding sorts, conventional sorts, hybrids, and landraces—all carry out higher. However, some varieties reply higher than others.

When working towards the SRI technique, farmers are extra occupied with planting native varieties as a result of their larger manufacturing degree makes them extra worthwhile. Local cultivars are usually most well-liked by farmers attributable to their larger pest and illness resistance and adaptation to native soil and local weather circumstances. The majority of consumers favor them due to their taste. Varieties and hybrids with heavy tillering must be used. Farmers can use the SRI strategies to take care of and improve the range of rice varieties planted, which has been diminishing in recent times.

Nursery Preparation

  • The nursery house required is 100 m2/ha (or 2.5 cents per hectare – 1 cent per acre).

  • Careful use of well-decomposed, high-quality FYM

  • For 1 hectare, 20 raised beds of 1 × 5 m are required.

  • A complete of 1.9 kg of powdered DAP must be used at a price of 95 g/raised mattress.

  • Spread polythene sheets equally throughout the beds. You also can use previous poly sacks.

  • Fill the polythene sheets as much as 4 cm with soil.

  • Pseudomonas 10 g/kg seed can be utilized to deal with seeds.

  • 75 g Azophos biofertilizer per kg of seed.

  • In every 5 sq. m nursery mattress, evenly distribute 375 g of seeds.

  • It is really useful that you simply water it with a rose can.

  • Use domestically accessible mulching supplies like coir pith/straw to cowl the seedbed.

Main Field Preparation

  • Plough the land through the summer time to avoid wasting water for the early preparation of the soil.

  • Allow 1 or 2 days for the water to seep into the sector earlier than plowing. Maintain a layer of water on the sector’s floor.

  • When puddling, hold the water at a depth of two.5 cm.

  • In SRI, correct leveling (laser leveling) of the primary area is vital. Field drainage is a significant aspect of SRI.

Seedling clear

  • Seedlings which can be 14 days previous are suggested for transplantation (3 leaves stage) as per Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) specialists.

  • The seedling development will be managed if the nursery mattress is correctly ready with sufficient natural manure.

  • A metallic sheet is inserted 4–5 inches under the seedbed, and the seedlings and soil are lifted with out inflicting any root harm.

  • As the seedlings are transplanted shallowly, they develop shortly. Single seedlings with seed and soil are transplanted by fastidiously putting them on the intersection of markings with the index finger and thumb.

  • Initially, 10–15 individuals are wanted to transplant seedlings on one acre.

Water Management

  • The sole objective of irrigation is to dampen the soil simply sufficient to saturate it with moisture.

  • Only when the soil develops superb cracks ought to or not it’s irrigated once more.

  • Increased microbial exercise within the soil and simple availability of vitamins to the crops come from common wetting and drying of the soil.


It’s vital to reap seed crops on the proper time. Seed yield can be tremendously decreased if this isn’t executed. When seeds are eliminated at an early stage, they shrink (throughout drying), limiting their germination capability. Delayed harvest causes seed discoloration and invitations pest and illness infestation. Ninety p.c of the seeds may have developed a straw coloration by maturity, and seed moisture content material will vary from 17 to twenty p.c. Harvest the male guardian first and take away it from the sector when it has absolutely matured, then harvest the hybrid seeds within the feminine guardian.

Treatment of Paddy Seeds to Increase Germination & Resistance to Pest and Diseases

As farmers at the moment are transferring in direction of chemical-free farming, they’re additionally in the hunt for natural strategies for the remedy of their seeds.

Seed remedy improves germination potential, vigor, and pest and illness resistance, and when executed organically, it eliminates the implications of chemical substances. The following are some straightforward natural rice seed remedy strategies:

Soaking Seeds in Water: Soak the seeds in water for 12 hours in a small gunny bag or fabric bag. Remove the bag from the water later and substitute it with a moist gunny bag. Soak the seeds in water for an additional eight hours the following day. Take the seeds out of the water and sow them within the nursery later. This strategy improves seed germination capability.

Using Cow Dung Solution: The germination of paddy seeds will be improved by soaking them in a cow dung answer. In this observe, 12 kg of contemporary cow dung and two litters of cow urine must be diluted in 5 gallons of water. Soak 10–15 kg seeds for 10–12 hours in water, then for five–6 hours within the cow dung answer.

Using Goat Dung Solution: The germination of 30-day-old seeds will be boosted by soaking them in a goat dung answer for in the future. 

This will be executed through the use of an answer made by diluting 500 ml of cow’s urine in 2.5 liters of water.  Place the seeds in small baggage and soak them for half an hour within the urine answer. Before sowing the seeds, allow them to dry out within the shade.

Using Sweet Flag Extract: In six liters of water, dissolve 1.25 kg candy flag rhizome powder. Soak the seeds within the extract for half an hour after tying them up in small baggage. Before planting, enable the seeds to dry out within the shade. (This is the quantity of seed remedy obligatory for one hectare of sowing.)

Using Salvadora persica as a base, fill a tightly knit bamboo basket with Salvadora persica leaves, then fill it with seeds and pour roughly 10 to 12 liters of water over the basket. Place a weight on prime of the Salvadora leaves and canopy the basket. Allow the seeds to relaxation for twenty-four hours. The seeds at the moment are able to be planted within the nursery.

This technique aids in germination that’s each early and vigorous. Rice seeds may also be handled with amrut pani/panchagavya/cow pat pit manure/jeevamrut

Using Biofertiliser: Bio fertilizers equivalent to azospirillum/azotobacter/pseudomonas (@ 1.25 kg/ha) are mixed in a single liter of cooled rice gruel first. Spread the sprouting seeds out on a clear ground, then combine within the biofertilizer slurry properly. This seeds and biofertilizer slurry may also be blended in a pot. Before planting, dry the seeds for half-hour within the shade. Before planting, dry the seeds for half an hour in direct daylight to boost germination and seedling vigor.

Hot Water Treatment: Hot water temperature remedy of about 60 °C for about quarter-hour is efficient in controlling a variety of seed-borne pathogens noticed in rice seeds.

First revealed on: 28 Apr 2022, 04:50 IST



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